Pre-Conditions and Legal Grounds For Divorce in Singapore

Amarjit Sidhu Law Corporation

In our previous articles, we explained the process of filing for divorce in Singapore, as well as ways to prove unreasonable behaviour in a marriage. In this article, we will summarise the pre-conditions and legal grounds for getting a divorce.

For a divorce to proceed, there needs to be proof of an irretrievable breakdown in the marriage which will make up the legal grounds for the divorce. Factors such as unreasonable behaviour, adultery, separation or desertion provide the facts for the case.

Pre-Conditions are the necessary requirements that a married couple must fulfil before they are allowed to file for divorce.

At Least 3 Years of Marriage

To qualify for a divorce, you will have to be married for a minimum of 3 years. However, if you can prove to the court that you have suffered exceptional hardship, or that your spouse has been exceptionally unreasonable towards you, or any other exceptional personal circumstances that could justify an early divorce, then you should consult a divorce lawyer who can guide you through the process.

Either you or your spouse will also have to be based, or domiciled in Singapore to be able to file for divorce.

Proving Irretrievable Breakdown In The Marriage

In Singapore, there are four facts defined by the law that can prove irretrievable breakdown in the marriage to justify a divorce:

  1. Adultery
  2. Unreasonable Behaviour
  3. Separation
  4. Desertion

Adultery: Most guilty parties would not necessarily admit to committing adultery. However, to justify the divorce, you will need to show evidence to prove it had happened. One way to get this evidence is to hire a private investigator.

Unreasonable Behaviour: The list of what can be defined as unreasonable behaviour may be subjective and vary from person to person. Several examples include, drug or gambling addiction, violence, excessive instances of unjustifiable late nights out, social irresponsibility, etc. This is a non-exhaustive list which is why it’s necessary to speak to a lawyer who can help you based on your personal circumstances.

Separation & Desertion: A couple can be considered Separated if they have lived apart for at least 3 years, and that both parties have agreed to that separation. If one party leaves the other and shows no intention of returning, then that will be considered Desertion.

Both parties will have to show evidence of their respective living arrangements to ensure they are living separately. It is possible to live separately, even under the same roof if you both can maintain separate households. 

If both parties attempt reconciliation, but it doesn’t last more than six months, then that timeline can be counted as part of the separation period.

If the couple have been living apart for at least 4 years, then the consent of the other party is not necessary for the divorce.

For more details and information, especially if you have personal circumstances that are not listed here, you should speak to a divorce lawyer who can guide you.

Engaging a Lawyer

If you are currently in a situation that requires mediation or legal advice, it’s best to consult a lawyer who will be able to guide you through your options.

Mr Amarjit Singh Sidhu of Amarjit Sidhu Law Corporation has represented numerous clients in a wide variety of matters over the years from traffic offences, high-profile criminal cases – to family and divorce matters. With a vast knowledge of Singapore’s laws and a wealth of experience, Mr Amarjit Singh Sidhu will be able to provide valuable and timely advice for your situation. For more information, feel free to contact us for a consultation.

Additional Resource: https://singaporelegaladvice.com/law-articles/what-are-the-grounds-for-getting-a-divorce/

How Do You Prove Separation in a Divorce?

Amarjit Sidhu Law Corporation

For a divorce case to proceed in Singapore, you’ll need to prove that there has been an irretrievable breakdown of the marriage. In an earlier article, we explained various justifications to prove unreasonable behaviour by your spouse. In this article, we will explain what the requirements of separation are.

For a non-contested divorce, 3 years of separation is required and for contested divorce, an additional year.

Legal Definition of Separation

Separation in a legal context may not necessarily mean physical separation. It could also apply to couples who are still living together. Therefore, both parties must show the intent to be apart from each other. 

If one party of the divorce is living overseas because of a work obligation while the spouse remains in Singapore, then even though they are physically separated, the separation in this case was caused by work obligations and not an intent to divorce.

Loss of Consortium  

Consortium in a marriage is the right to companionship and association between each other. In other words, the intimacy and time spent with each other. In most divorce cases, there is a loss or reduction of consortium which leads to separation. 

However, if the couple are physically separated and living far away from each other, but still speak to each other regularly as if they were still together, or do not show any intent to end the marriage, then they will not be considered separated.

The separation will also need to be over a continuous period of time. The court will generally promote attempts at reconciliation and if the couple manage to live with each other again but fail after less than 6 months, they will still be considered separated.

How To Prove Separation While Living Together?

While it may seem impossible, it is actually possible to prove separation while still living together with your spouse. Both parties will need to maintain separate households even if they are living under the same roof. 

The judge will also consider the circumstances of the case including loss of consortium and a breakdown in the marriage while they were living together. 

During this period, both parties will also be expected not to engage in typical spousal duties which can include cleaning and cooking for each other. Both parties will also be expected to maintain separate finances and sleep in different rooms.

Desertion

While separation refers to a mutual agreement between the couple, desertion depends on the deserting party’s frame of mind. It must be shown that the person had the intention to permanently end the marriage. This can apply if one party leaves the house, or if they have separated but one party refuses to resume cohabitation.

The desertion must also occur at least over two consecutive years, and likely to continue longer.

What You Will Need

For an uncontested divorce, you will need to file a formal consent written by your spouse in the Memorandum of Appearance (MOA). 

Your lawyer will help you draft a Deed of Separation, a legally binding document containing the terms and conditions of the couple’s arrangements to live separately. The separation deed consists of two categories of clauses.

  1. The details of the separation such as the date, living arrangements of both parties and an agreement that both parties will live separately.
  2. Financial arrangements between the spouses such as division of matrimonial assets, maintenance terms including children’s living arrangements and access.

A statement of particulars including the date when the couple decided to permanently end the consortium should be provided, including the reasons and intention to live separately. If the couple had been living separately, then proof of their respective residential addresses will be required.

For more details and information, you should speak to a divorce lawyer who can guide you based on your specific circumstances.

Engaging a Lawyer

If you are currently in a situation that requires mediation or legal advice, it’s best to consult a lawyer who will be able to guide you through your options.

Mr Amarjit Singh Sidhu of Amarjit Sidhu Law Corporation has represented numerous clients in a wide variety of matters over the years from traffic offences, high-profile criminal cases – to family and divorce matters. With a vast knowledge of Singapore’s laws and a wealth of experience, Mr Amarjit Singh Sidhu will be able to provide valuable and timely advice for your situation. For more information, feel free to contact us for a consultation.

Additional Resource: https://singaporelegaladvice.com/law-articles/how-to-prove-separation/

Maintenance

Amarjit Sidhu Law Corporation

Maintenance is a form of financial support and may be imposed such that one party provides for the other party or their children’s’ living expenses. A Maintenance Order is a court order stating that a divorced or legally separated person must pay his/her former partner a regular sum in order to cover the costs of living.

However, this order isn’t limited to just marriages. A maintenance order may also be imposed for children who are financially capable to provide maintenance for their elderly parents, but choose not to do so due to the strained relationship between them.

  • Who can apply for a Maintenance Order
  • Factors determining whether a maintenance order should be imposed
  • Factors determining the amount of maintenance payable
  • How long will the maintenance order last?
  • What if the other party defaults on maintenance payments?
  • Application for Maintenance Orders at the Family Justice Courts (FJC)
  • Post-Application Process

Who can apply for a Maintenance Order?

Under section 69 of the Women’s Charter, the following persons may apply for a maintenance order:

  • S 69(1): A wife may apply for a maintenance order from her husband if he neglected or refused to provide reasonable maintenance for her.
  • S 69(1A): An incapacitated husband may apply for a maintenance order from his wife if she neglected or refused to provide reasonable maintenance for him.
  • S 69(2): A child may apply for a maintenance order from a parent if the parent neglected or refused to provide reasonable maintenance for the child who is unable to maintain himself.
  • S 69(5): A child who has attained the age of 21 years may apply for a maintenance order from a parent under s 69(2) if
    • The child has a mental or physical disability;
    • The child is or will be serving full-time National Service; or
    • The child is still a full-time student.

Under section 3 of the Maintenance of Parents Act, the following persons may be able to apply for a maintenance order:

  • S 3(1): A person domiciled and resident in Singapore over the age of 60 and who is unable to maintain himself adequately may apply for a maintenance order from his/her children. 
  • S 3(4): A parent is unable to maintain himself if his total or expected income and other financial resources are inadequate to provide him with basic amenities and basic physical needs including shelter, food, medical costs and clothing.
  • S 3(2): The organisation or approved person whose care the parent resides in may apply for a maintenance order from the children to defray the cost of maintaining the parent.
  • S 3(5): A person who is under the age of 60 may apply for a maintenance order from his/her children under s 3(1) if
  1. The parent suffers from a mental or physical illness that prevents him from maintaining or makes it difficult for him to maintain himself; or
  2. The parent has other special reasons for requesting maintenance.

Upon application, the court will consider all the circumstances of the case, including:

  1. Parties’ financial needs;
  2. Parties’ income earning capacity (if any), property and other financial resources;
  3. Whether the party has any physical or mental disability;
  4. Contributions made by each party to the family welfare, including looking after the home or caring for the family, and the conduct of the parties;
  5. Standard of living enjoyed before the neglect or refusal; and
  6. In the case of a child, the manner in which he/she was being, and in which the parties to the marriage expected him/her to be educated or trained.

Factors determining whether a maintenance order should be imposed

Section 69(4) of the Women’s Charter states that the following circumstances are taken into account when determining whether a maintenance order should be imposed:

  1. the financial needs;
  2. the income, earning capacity (if any), property and other financial resources; 
  3. any physical or mental disability; 
  4. the age of each party to the marriage and the duration of the marriage;
  5. the contributions made by each of the parties to the marriage to the welfare of the family, including any contribution made by looking after the home or caring for the family;
  6. the standard of living enjoyed by the party seeking maintenance before the other party (the other spouse or parent) neglected or refused to provide reasonable maintenance ;
  7. in the case of a child, the manner in which he was being, and in which the parties to the marriage expected him to be, educated or trained;
  8. the conduct of each of the parties to the marriage, if the conduct is such that it would in the opinion of the court be inequitable to disregard it.

Section 5(1) of the Maintenance of Parents Act states that a maintenance order may be imposed

  1. when it is just and equitable that the children should provide maintenance for their parent; and
  2. the child, after taking care of his own family needs, is still financially capable of supporting his parent; and
  3. the parent is unable to maintain himself.

Some factors and circumstances that will be taken into consideration in determining whether a maintenance order should be imposed are listed in Section 5(2) of the Maintenance of Parents Act:

  1. the financial needs of the parent, taking into account reasonable expenses for housing and medical costs;
  2. the income, earning capacity, property and other financial resources of the parent and the manner in which the parent has spent his savings or dissipated his financial resources;
  3. any physical or mental disability of the parent;
  4. the income, earning capacity, property and other financial resources of the children;
  5. the expenses incurred by the child in supporting his spouse or children;
  6. the contributions and provisions, whether financial or otherwise, which the child has made for the maintenance of the parent.

What factors are considered when determining the amount of maintenance payable?

The factors and circumstances considered by the Court are listed in section 114 of the Women’s Charter:

  1. the income, earning capacity, property and other financial resources;
  2. the financial needs, obligations and responsibilities;
  3. the standard of living enjoyed by the family before the breakdown of the marriage;
  4. the age of each party;
  5. the duration of the marriage;
  6. any physical or mental disability;
  7. the contributions made by each of the parties to the marriage to the welfare of the family; and
  8. In proceedings for divorce or nullity of marriage, the value to either of the parties to the marriage of any benefit (eg, pension) which, by reason of the dissolution or annulment of the marriage, that party will lose the chance of acquiring.

Some factors and circumstances considered when determining the amount of maintenance payable under the Maintenance of Parents Act include:

  1. S 5(3) & 5(4): Where the child proves that the parent had abandoned, abused or neglected the child that the parent is seeking maintenance from, the application may be dismissed or the quantum of maintenance may be reduced.
  2. S 5(5): Where there is more than one child that the parent is claiming maintenance from, the amount may be apportioned

If, and when you do obtain a Maintenance Order, it will state:

  1. The amount of maintenance to be paid;
  2. When it is to be paid;
  3. To whom it is to be paid; and
  4. The method of payment – whether payment is made to the Complainant directly or deposited into the Complainant’s bank account. Payment to a bank account is preferred as there will be evidence of payment.

How long will the maintenance order last?

Section 117 of the Women’s Charter states that the maintenance order will last until 

  1. where the maintenance is unsecured:
    1. either spouse or former spouse dies; or 
    2. when the former spouse remarries. 
  2. where the maintenance is secured:
    1. when the spouse dies; or
    2. when the former spouse dies or remarries.

Where child maintenance is concerned, the maintenance order will last until the child reaches 21 years of age. For children of 21 years or older, a maintenance order will only continue to receive maintenance if it is proven that:

  1. the child has a mental or physical disability;
  2. the child is or will be serving full-time National Service; or
  3. the child is still a full-time student.

Section 7 of the Maintenance of Parents Act states that the maintenance order will last until

  1. where the maintenance is unsecured: either death of the parent or the child he is seeking maintenance from, whichever is earlier; or
    1. Where a maintenance order was made against more than one respondent, the death of one of the respondents will not affect the liability of the rest; 
    2. The parent may apply to reapportion the maintenance amount among the surviving respondents;
  2. where the maintenance is secured: the death of the parent.

What can I do if the other party defaults on payment of maintenance?

Section 71 of the Women’s Charter sets out the enforcement measures that may be imposed on the obliged party should they default on their payment of maintenance. These measures are also applicable to defaulting parties under the Maintenance of Parents Act:

  1. A fine imposed for every breach of the order;
  2. An imprisonment term not exceeding one month for each month’s allowance remaining unpaid (The defaulting party still has to pay for any unpaid maintenance. The court may reduce the amount as it thinks fit);
  3. A garnishee order may be imposed; or
  4. The defaulting party may be ordered to furnish security for against any future default in maintenance payments by means of a bankerʼs guarantee (notwithstanding that the unpaid amount has been paid off in part or in whole);
    1. For an amount not exceeding 3 months of maintenance payable; and
    2. That shall be valid for a period to be determined by the court not exceeding 3 years, starting from the date of order the security is made.
  5. The defaulting party may be ordered to undergo financial counselling or other similar or related programmes if it is in the interests of the parties (notwithstanding that the unpaid amount has been paid off in part or in whole);
  6. Make a community service order requiring the person to perform any unpaid community service for up to 40 hours under the supervision of a community service officer (notwithstanding that the unpaid amount has been paid off in part or in whole).

Application for Maintenance Orders at the Family Justice Courts (FJC)

The Family Justice Court (“FJC”) deals with applications for maintenance orders as well as the enforcement of existing maintenance orders.

Step 1: Submission of documents and information on iFAMS Application

You are encouraged to submit your application in draft and documents online by iFAMS before going down to FJC. Before beginning on your iFAMS application, do ensure that you have your SingPass ID and password.

  1. Login to iFAMS (https://ifams.gov.sg/sop/#iFAMS) and click “Maintenance Order Application”
  2. Proceed to fill in the online form.
  3. Save your work and choose whether you wish to verify your application and documents at the Court or at an authorised agency. 

Step 2: Verify the relevant documentations to FJC

When you go down to FJC, do ensure that you bring along the following documents and identification:

  • Your identity card;
  • Photocopy of your marriage certificate (if applicable);
  • Photocopy of your birth certificate(s) of your child(ren) (if applicable); and
  • Photocopy of the Order of Court for maintenance that you wish to enforce (if applicable).

Step 3: Attending before a Judge

You will appear before a Judge, who will consider your application and may ask you questions on your application. You will have to swear or affirm that the contents of your application and your answers to the Judge are true and correct. 

Complainant and Respondent

The “Complainant” is the person filing the application for the maintenance order while the “Respondent” is the person against whom you are filing the application for the maintenance order.

Post-Application Process

Step 1: Service of Summons

Once your application is ready, the Judge will issue a summons to the Respondent which will contain the date of first mentions of the case. Both the Respondent and the Complainant will be required to attend the first mentions date. 

Step 2: First Mentions 

The complaint will be read at the first mentions. If the Respondent consents to the application and the Court is satisfied, a consent order can be recorded.

Step 3: Mediation

If there is no resolution after the complaint is read, the Court may direct parties to attend a mediation session. After the mediation session, parties will be directed to Family Court No.1 before the Judge. If there is a resolution and the Respondent consents to the application and the Court is satisfied, a consent order can be recorded by the Judge.

Step 4: Hearings

If the mediation session concludes without any resolution, the Judge in Family Court No.1 will give directions for parties to prepare for the parties’ and witnesses’ statements and documents for the hearing. This will usually comprise of

  • the parties’ bank statements; 
  • the parties’ CPF statements, 
  • The parties’ salary slips, 
  • IRAS Notices of Assessment; and 
  • Lists of personal monthly expenses. 

These documents will be exchanged and filed on a later date at Family Court No. 1. Once the Judge is satisfied that all relevant documents are filed and the parties are ready for hearing, a hearing date will be fixed.

Should the parties or any of the witnesses are not conversant with the English Language, they should request for an Interpreter. Each party must also ensure that their witnesses are available to attend the hearing. 

Engaging a Lawyer

If you are currently in a situation that requires mediation or legal advice, it’s best to consult a lawyer who will be able to guide you through your options.

Mr Amarjit Singh Sidhu of Amarjit Sidhu Law Corporation has represented numerous clients in a wide variety of matters over the years from traffic offences, high-profile criminal cases – to family and divorce matters. With a vast knowledge of Singapore’s laws and a wealth of experience, Mr Amarjit Singh Sidhu will be able to provide valuable and timely advice for your situation. For more information, feel free to contact us for a consultation.

Overview of Common Sexual Offences in Singapore (June 2021)

Amarjit Sidhu Law Corporation

We have published 6 articles worth of information on the Act 15 of 2019 Amendments to the law, specifically with regards to sexual crime and the protection of minors against such crimes. In this overview article, we will summarise these laws, sorted by the types of offence, as well as their respective penalties.

  • Overview
  • Assault or criminal force to outrage modesty
  • Rape
  • Sexual assault Involving penetration
  • Words or gestures
  • Voyeurism
  • Distribution of voyeuristic images
  • Possession of voyeuristic images
  • Sexual exposure
  • The Protection From Harassment Act
  • Physical sexual harassment

It is important to first make a police report, and seek clarification from a lawyer if you have recently experienced any of these offences. 

Overview of offences

OffenceStatutePenalties
Assault or use of criminal force to a person with intent to outrage modestySection 354 of the Penal CodeImprisonment for a term which may extend to 2 years; OR with fine; OR with caning; OR with any combination of such punishments
RapeSection 375 of the Penal CodeImprisonment for a term which may extend to 20 years; AND shall also be liable to fine; OR to caning
Sexual assault involving penetrationSection 376 of the Penal CodeImprisonment for a term which may extend to 20 years; AND shall also be liable to fine; OR to caning
Word or gesture intended to insult modesty of any personSection 377BA of the Penal CodeImprisonment for a term which may extend to one year; OR with fine; OR with both.
VoyeurismSection 377BB of the Penal CodeImprisonment for a term which may extend to 2 years; OR with fine; OR with caning; OR with any combination of such punishments
Distribution of voyeuristic images or recordingsSection 377BC of the Penal CodeImprisonment for a term which may extend to 5 years; OR with fine; OR with caning; OR any combination of such punishments
Possession of or gaining access to voyeuristic or intimate images or recordingsSection 377BD of the Penal CodeImprisonment for a term which may extend to 2 years; OR with fine; OR with both
Distributing or threatening to distribute intimate images or recordings Section 377BE of the Penal CodeImprisonment for a term which may extend to 5 years; OR with fine; OR with caning; OR with any combination of such punishments
Sexual exposureSection 377BF of the Penal CodeImprisonment for a term which may extend to one year; OR with fine; OR with both
Non-physical sexual harassmentSection 3 of the Protection from Harassment Act


Section 4 of the Protection from Harassment Act
A fine not exceeding $5,000; OR an imprisonment term not exceeding 6 months; OR both.
A fine not exceeding $5,000
Physical sexual harassment: unlawful stalkingSection 7 of the Protection from Harassment ActA fine not exceeding $5,000; OR to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 12 months; OR both

Section 354: Assault or criminal use of force with intent to outrage modesty

Section 354 of the Penal Code criminalises the intent of outraging the modesty of another person with criminal force. Most cases that fall under this section typically involve acts of molestation. Past cases involving upskirt photography/videography were prosecuted under this section but with the new amendments, those offences are now covered in 377BB of the Penal Code. 

Under this section, the accused must:

  1. Have intended to outrage the modesty of the victim; or
  2. Have knowledge that his/her conduct will lead to the outage of modesty of the victim.

Should the accused be prosecuted under this section successfully, the court may impose: 

  1. an imprisonment term up to 2 years; OR 
  2. with fine; OR 
  3. with caning; OR 
  4. any combination of such punishment. 

Section 375: Rape

Men and women can both be victims of rape. However this section applies to men because it specifically mentions penile penetration. 

In order for a case under this section to succeed, the accused must have:

  1. Penetrated the vagina, anus or mouth of another person without that person’s consent.

Should the accused be prosecuted under this section successfully, the court may impose:

  1. an imprisonment term up to 20 years; AND 
  2. be liable to 
    1. a fine; OR 
    2. caning.

If the victim was under 14 years of age, any penetration will automatically be considered rape.

Section 376: Sexual assault involving penetration 

This section covers the offences where any person:

  1. sexually penetrates the vagina or anus of another person with a part of their body (other than the penis) or an object, without the other person’s consent;
  2. causes a man to penetrate the vagina, anus or mouth of another person with his penis without his consent; or
  3. causes another person, to sexually penetrate the vagina or anus of another person with a part of their body (other than the penis) or an object, without the other person’s consent,

While only men can be charged under section 375 of the Penal Code for rape, section 376 allows for the prosecution of women. 

A person guilty of an offence under section 376 shall be punished with:

  1. an imprisonment term which may extend to 20 years, AND 
  2. shall also be liable to 
    1. a fine; OR 
    2. caning.

Section 377BA: Words or gestures intended to insult the modesty of any person

This section is also a gender-neutral version of the pre-amendment section 509 of the Penal Code. 

According to this section: 

  1. any person who utters any word, makes any sound or gesture, or exhibits any object, 
  2. intending that 
    1. such word or sound will be heard, or 
    2. that such gesture or object will be 
      1. seen by such person, or 
      2. intrudes upon the privacy of such person.

Punishments if found guilty of an offence: 

  1. an imprisonment term up to one year; OR 
  2. with fine; OR 
  3. with both

This section has been applied in newer cases, including one involving a man who removed his pants and stroked himself with the intention of being seen by two people. 

Section 377BB: Voyeurism

Voyeurism, an act that has recently gained traction in the local discourse about sexual misconduct since the Monica Baey exposé, will now be punishable under section 377BB. 

Anyone can be a victim of voyeurism. In the past, perpetrators, whose victims were men, could not be punished under section 509 of the Penal Code because the offences were specifically for female victims. The addition of this new section has since broadened the scope of protection to include men. 

This new act applies to offences such as: 

  1. S 377BB(1)(a): intentionally observing another person doing a private act; OR
  2. S 377BB(2)(a): operating equipment with the intention of enabling the accused or another person to observe a third person doing a private act; OR
  3. S 377BB(3)(a): intentionally or knowingly recording another person doing a private act; OR
  4. S 377BB(4)(a): operating equipment with the intention of enabling the accused or another person to observe a third person’s genitals, breast (if the victim is a female) or buttocks (whether exposed or covered) in circumstances where such body parts or underwear would not otherwise be visible; OR
  5. S 377BB(5)(a): intentionally or knowingly recording an image of another person’s genitals, breast (if the victim is a female) or buttocks (whether exposed or covered) in circumstances where such body parts or underwear would not otherwise be visible; OR
  6. S 377BB(6): installing equipment with the intention of enabling the accused or another person to commit an offence under subsection (1), (2), (3), (4) or (5).
  1. The accused must know that the other person did not consent to the acts mentioned.

Punishments under section 377BB: 

  1. an imprisonment term which may extend to 2 years; OR 
  2. with fine; OR 
  3. with caning; OR 
  4. with any combination of such punishments.

Section 377BC: Distribution of voyeuristic images or recordings

Under this section, offences include: 

  1. intentionally or knowingly distributing or has in possession, an image or recording of another person without that person’s consent to the distribution;
  2. knowing or having reason to believe that the image or recording was obtained through voyeurism; and
  3. knows or has reason to believe that the other person does not consent to the distribution.

Punishment if found guilty:

  1. an imprisonment term which may extend to 5 years; OR 
  2. with fine; OR 
  3. with caning; OR
  4. any combination of such punishments

Section 377BD: Possession of voyeuristic or intimate images and recordings

This section covers offences where the accused has:

  1. gained access to an image or recording of another person; and
  2. has knowledge that the image or recording was obtained through voyeurism; or
  3. has knowledge that 
    1. the image or recording is an intimate image or recording as defined in section 377BE(5);
    2. the possession of, or access to the image or recording was without the consent of the person depicted in the image or recording; and
    3. the possession of or access to the image or recording will or is likely to cause humiliation, alarm or distress to the person depicted in the image or recording.

If found guilty of an offence under section 377BD, the punishment will be:

  1. an imprisonment term which may extend to 2 years; OR 
  2. with fine; OR
  3. with both.

Section 377BE: Distributing or threatening to distribute intimate images

As information technology gets more invasive and intrusive, non-consensual pornography has been on the rise as a result. The most prominent example being the SG Nasi Lemak Telegram chat group, in which 44,000 group members shared hundreds of obscene photos and videos of women. Many of such images and recordings, some of which are also known as revenge porn, were obtained through voyeuristic means. With the 2019 Criminal Law Reform Act, this new section serves to tackle this problem.

There are three elements to an offence under section 377BE

  1. The offender must have intentionally or knowingly distributed or threatened to distribute an intimate image or recording of another person;
  2. Without that person’s consent; and
  3. With knowledge that the distribution will or is likely to cause the other person humiliation, alarm or distress.

An intimate image is a recording of the genitals, anal region or breasts of the victim, or a recording of the victim doing a private act. Images and recordings that have been altered or edited to appear like an intimate image are also considered as such.

If found guilty, the punishment will be:

  1. an imprisonment term which may extend to 5 years; OR
  2. with fine; OR 
  3. with caning; OR 
  4. with any combination of such punishments

Section 377BF: Sexual Exposure (Flashing)

This section prosecutes the act of exposing one’s genitals to another person, commonly known as flashing. This law applies to any person who:

  1. for the purposes of obtaining sexual gratification or of causing another person humiliation, alarm or distress, 
    1. S 377BF(1)(a): intentionally exposes his/her genitals; OR
    2. S 377BF(2)(a): intentionally distributes to the other person an image of his/her own or any other person’s genitals;
  2. intends that the other person will see his/her genitals; AND
  3. does so without the other person’s consent.

A person guilty of an offence under section 377BF shall be punished with 

  1. an imprisonment term which may extend to one year; OR 
  2. with fine; OR 
  3. with both.

The Protection From Harassment Act: Non-physical sexual harassment

Sexual harassment can come in both physical and non-physical forms. Perpetrators of non-physical sexual harassment may now be liable under sections 3 and 4 of the Protection from Harassment Act.

Under Section 3, the offender must have intended to harass, alarm or cause distress to the victim through threats, abuse or insult, and did in fact take action by causing harassment, alarm or distress.

If found guilty under this section, the punishment is:

  1. a fine not exceeding $5,000; OR 
  2. imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months; OR 
  3. both.

For section 4, the offender must have used threatening, abusive or insulting words or behaviour which is perceived by the victim as harassment or causing alarm, or distress.

The punishment for an offence under section 4 of the Protection from Harassment Act will be a fine not exceeding $5,000. 

The Protection From Harassment Act: Physical Sexual Harassment – Unlawful stalking

Under section 7 of the Protection from Harassment Act, the offender must have

  1. Unlawfully stalked the victim whether through acts or omissions;
  2. Caused the victim harassment, alarm or distress; and
  3. It was done with
    1. the intention of causing harassment, alarm or distress to that person; or
    2. knowledge that such an act would cause harassment, alarm or distress to that person.

A person guilty of an offence under section 7 of the Protection from Harassment Act shall be punished with

  1. a fine not exceeding $5,000; or
  2. an imprisonment term not exceeding 12 months; or 
  3. Both.

Engaging a Lawyer

If you are currently in a situation that requires mediation or legal advice, it’s best to consult a lawyer who will be able to guide you through your options.

Mr Amarjit Singh Sidhu of Amarjit Sidhu Law Corporation has represented numerous clients in a wide variety of matters over the years from traffic offences, high-profile criminal cases – to family and divorce matters. With a vast knowledge of Singapore’s laws and a wealth of experience, Mr Amarjit Singh Sidhu will be able to provide valuable and timely advice for your situation. For more information, feel free to contact us for a consultation.

A Guide to Sexual Offences in Singapore [Part 6] – Child Abuse Material and Exploitative Relationships

Amarjit Sidhu Law Corporation

As part of our ongoing explainer series on sexual offences in Singapore and how the Act 15 of 2019 amendments to the laws will better protect the vulnerable, we have covered consent, definition of minors and commercial sex. In this article, we will explain the interpretations of various sexual offences that involve ‘child abuse material’, and identify the signs of an exploitative relationship. 

What is Child Abuse Material

The Act 15 of 2019 amendments to the law that took effect in 2020 highlight very clearly, the definition of child abuse material, in their various formats and possibilities, with certain related keywords from Sections 375 to 377BO that we will highlight and explain below.

According to the law, child abuse material refers to any material that depicts, or implies an image of a minor below the age of 16 as:

  • Victim of torture, cruelty or physical abuse;
  • Victim of sexual abuse;
  • Engaged in a sexual pose or activity, alone or with another person;
  • In the presence of another person who is engaging in sexual activity.

This material can also include offensive depictions or images of the genital or anal regions, and breasts if female, of someone who may appear to any reasonable observer to be below the age of 16.

The Important Keywords

There are several keywords and actions that are mentioned within these sections that we will select and simplify as they will provide us with a better understanding of how these new laws will work.  

  • Material: a film, video, photograph, printed matter, electronic record, computer game or just about any other depiction or image;
     
  • Image (visual): a still or moving, recorded or unrecorded visual produced by any means, and where the context requires, may also include three-dimensional images;
  • Image (person): an image that resembles an actual person so closely that an observer may not be able to tell the difference.
  • Structure: a temporary or movable structure such as a tent, vehicle or vessel;
  • Touching: includes touching another person using any other part of the body besides the hand, or using an object, or even through something else, eg. through fabric or a curtain;
  • Distribute: whether done electronically, digitally or in person, distribute refers to sending, publishing, supplying, showing, exhibiting, transmitting, communicating, making available for viewing, or access by another person, any child abuse material;

According to the law, a person will be committing an offence by simply distributing the material, even if the recipient never gains access to it. 

Exploitative Relationships

An exploitative relationship will be determined by the court based on certain factors and the circumstances of the case if the victim is a minor below the age of 18. These factors include:

  • The age of the minor;
  • The age difference between the minor and the accused;
  • The nature of their relationship;
  • The degree of control or influence the accused has over the minor.

The court will also presume their relationship was exploitative, unless proven otherwise, if the accused is a:

  • Parent, step-parent, guardian or foster parent of the minor;
  • De facto partner of the parent, guardian or foster parent;
  • Member of the teaching or management staff in the minor’s school;
  • Person the minor knew from a religious, sporting, musical group or class;
  • Custodial officer of the institution where the minor is detained; 
  • Registered medical practitioner to whom the minor is a patient;
  • Advocate, solicitor or counsellor where the minor is a client;

Consent Under Misconception 

For exploitative relationships involving non-minors, the main factor is consent, as well as the identity of the accused. In a situation where the victim provides consent for a non-sexual activity, without realising that the accused was planning a sex act instead, or the accused was not the person the victim was expecting, eg. husband imposter, etc. In this instance, the consent given earlier is no longer valid.

However, in another example, if person A tells person B that he is the CEO of a large company, although he is only the CEO’s clerk, and person B consents to sexual intercourse with person A, only to find out later who A really is, the court may determine that B’s misconception was as to the person’s attributes and not his identity and therefore, the consent may be considered valid.

Engaging a Lawyer

If you are currently in a situation that requires mediation or legal advice, it’s best to consult a lawyer who will be able to guide you through your options.

Mr Amarjit Singh Sidhu of Amarjit Sidhu Law Corporation has represented numerous clients in a wide variety of matters over the years from traffic offences, high-profile criminal cases – to family and divorce matters. With a vast knowledge of Singapore’s laws and a wealth of experience, Mr Amarjit Singh Sidhu will be able to provide valuable and timely advice for your situation. For more information, feel free to contact us for a consultation.

Source: https://sso.agc.gov.sg/Act/PC1871?ProvIds=P4XVI-P4_375-.#pr377C- 

A Guide to Sexual Offences in Singapore [Part 5] – Possession and Distribution of Voyeuristic Materials

Amarjit Sidhu Law Corporation

As we navigate into our new reality where high resolution digital cameras get increasingly smaller and easier to hide, and with social media and instant messaging conversations buzzing with terabytes of visual content from photos and videos every minute, they open a whole new domain for potential criminal acts that might happen, especially against vulnerable communities like minors. 

In our previous articles in this series, we covered consent, definition of minors and commercial sex. In this article, we’ll explain how the Act 15 of 2019 amendments to the law will deal with the possession and distribution of voyeuristic images in Singapore.

Hidden Cameras and Dirty Secrets

Over the past few years, there has been a disturbing increase in the number of sexual offences globally involving hidden cameras, with the resulting footage either being uploaded on to pornographic websites without the victim’s knowledge, or used as ransom for blackmail. 

In fact, in 2019, South Korea experienced the Burning Sun scandal when numerous top celebrities were exposed, as part of a large scale syndicate that involved secretly recorded sex videos distributed without the victims’ consent. The scandal became such a huge talking point that the term ‘Molka’ was coined to describe the phenomenon.

Will This Ever Happen in Singapore?

The unfortunate reality is that it has already happened in Singapore, and remains a problem. 

The same year Korea was dealing with Molka, a scandal involving a Telegram channel started by Singaporeans with an estimated 44,000 members called ‘SG Nasi Lemak’ made the news for the same reasons. While the perpetrators in Singapore weren’t celebrities in their own right, the case highlighted the growing problem of voyeurism — the recording and distribution of obscene videos in Singapore and the lack of protection for victims, mostly schoolgirls, against such acts — which led to the Act 15 of 2019 Amendment.

What Are The New Safeguards in Place?

In our previous article, we explained voyeurism and outrage of modesty. For this portion, we will look at Section 377BC – Distribution of voyeuristic image or recording.

According to the law, if a person intentionally or knowingly distributes an obscene image or recording of another person without their consent, the person will have committed an offence. In deeper detail, what “knowingly” means is that the person is aware, or has reasons to believe that the recording was made without the victim’s consent, like hidden camera footage from a hotel room or a toilet cubicle, but still đecides to distribute the video.

Examples of distribution may include the sharing of obscene videos on chat applications like Telegram and Whatsapp, or any other instant messaging service, as well as sharing links to such videos online, or even in public, by transferring the files from one device to another by either a wireless connection, or a USB drive.

The punishment, if found guilty of any offence under this section, is a jail term of up to 5 years, or a fine, or caning. If the victim is below the age of 14, then it will be a jail term of up to 5 years, with a fine, or a combination including caning. 

What Can You Do if You Stumble Upon an Obscene Recording of a Familiar Person?

In the event that you, or someone you know, is in a situation where an obscene recording is making its rounds with the potential to cause humiliation, alarm or distress to the person, then it’s important to make a police report immediately and not to distribute it any further. You may also contact a lawyer if you are unsure of what to do next.

Possession of, or gaining access to such material after knowing, or having reason to believe the video was recorded or released without the victim’s permission, is an offence which is punishable by up to 2 years in prison, with a possible fine. Caning may be included if the victim was below 14.

Such materials may also include photographs or video recordings, or in any other visual format in a digital file such as MP4 and MOV videos, or JPG and PNG image files, or in any other file format that can be saved in an electronic device and viewed on like a phone or tablet, and transferred between devices either through an app or a physical drive. If a stranger decides to show you an obscene image from their phone in a public place, they will have committed an offence. 

Distributing or Threatening to Distribute Intimate Image or Recording

Also known as ‘revenge porn’, a form of blackmail, the act of distributing or just threatening someone that an intimate image or recording will be distributed without their consent, with the knowledge that the material will cause humiliation, alarm or distress is an offence that will be punishable by up to 5 years in prison, which may include a fine, and caning. 

Intimate image, according to the law, can also refer to:

  • A still photograph, or a video;
  • Someone’s genital or anal region, covered or not; 
  • Breasts, if female, covered or not; 
  • Performing a private act;
  • Superimposed image of a person’s face on another person performing a sexual act to make it seem like the act involved the former.

If you encounter any such incidents, make a police report immediately. In our next part of this series on sexual offences and the new laws to address them, we will explain the legal definition of child abuse material and exploitative relationships.

Engaging a Lawyer

If you are currently in a situation that requires mediation or legal advice, it’s best to consult a lawyer who will be able to guide you through your options.

Mr Amarjit Singh Sidhu of Amarjit Sidhu Law Corporation has represented numerous clients in a wide variety of matters over the years from traffic offences, high-profile criminal cases – to family and divorce matters. With a vast knowledge of Singapore’s laws and a wealth of experience, Mr Amarjit Singh Sidhu will be able to provide valuable and timely advice for your situation. For more information, feel free to contact us for a consultation.

Source: https://sso.agc.gov.sg/Act/PC1871?ProvIds=P4XVI-P4_375-.#pr377BC-

A Guide to Sexual Offences in Singapore [Part 4] – Outrage of Modesty and Voyeurism

In our previous articles in this series, we explained what consent is, as well as details on parts of the new Act 15 of 2019 which will better protect minors under the age of 18 from sexual offences, both offline and online. This article will highlight certain sexual offences that commonly happen in Singapore and what you should know about them.

Previously, the term ‘outrage of modesty’ would be synonymous with molest, or inappropriate touching. The new Act 15 of 2019 will now include words and gestures as stated in Section 377BA:

This law is meant to address a very common grey area and clearly defines what is acceptable and what is not. What this means is that certain acts, sounds, or even an object that mimics an offensive sound may now get the offender jailed for up to a year, with a fine, or both.

Examples include an offensive nickname given to the victim, or even certain vulgar facial expressions, even if no word was uttered, as long as the victim can see it or had his/her privacy intruded. 

In a workplace setting, this could include acts like pointing out a female colleague’s physical features out loud, or placing a sex toy on their desk, even if it was meant to be a joke and in more recent cases, including in schools, the act of voyeurism.

What Exactly is Voyeurism?

According to the new Section 377BB, Voyeurism refers to the act of watching someone else committing a private act without their knowledge or permission while knowing the victim will not allow it even if asked. The closest layman term to this would be a “Peeping Tom”.

This includes acts such as:

  • Operating an equipment to commit or enable someone else to observe or record the private act such as placing hidden cameras in the victim’s room or using binoculars or image enhancing hardware to observe someone else’s private act.

  • Operating equipment to commit or enable someone else to observe or record the victim’s genitals, breasts and buttocks that otherwise would not be visible, without the victim’s knowledge or permission like rigging a toilet cubicle with a hidden camera.

  • Intentionally records someone’s genitals, breasts or buttocks, covered or not, without their permission.

The punishment for anyone found guilty of any of these offences is a jail term of up to 2 years which may include a fine and caning.

According to Section 377BB(9), ”In any proceedings for an offence under this section, where a person (A) has made a recording of another person (B) doing a private act or of B’s genitals, breasts if B is female, or buttocks (whether exposed or covered), in circumstances where the genitals, breasts or buttocks would not otherwise be visible, it is presumed until the contrary is proved that B did not consent to A making the recording.

In our next part of this series, we will explain how the new set of laws have been designed to curb the storage and distribution of such recorded materials.

Engaging a Lawyer

If you are currently in a situation that requires mediation or legal advice, it’s best to consult a lawyer who will be able to guide you through your options.

Mr Amarjit Singh Sidhu of Amarjit Sidhu Law Corporation has represented numerous clients in a wide variety of matters over the years from traffic offences, high-profile criminal cases – to family and divorce matters. With a vast knowledge of Singapore’s laws and a wealth of experience, Mr Amarjit Singh Sidhu will be able to provide valuable and timely advice for your situation. For more information, feel free to contact us for a consultation.

Source: https://sso.agc.gov.sg/Act/PC1871?ProvIds=P4XVI-P4_375-.#pr376B-

A Guide to Sexual Offences in Singapore [Part 3] – Commercial Sex

In our previous articles in this series, we explained what consent is, and how the new amendments to the law will better protect minors. In this article, we will explain the new laws regarding commercial sex, especially involving minors.

While commercial sex itself is not illegal in Singapore, any activity involving minors under the age of 18, even just touching of a sexual nature, as included in the Act 15 amendment of 2019, Section 376B(4) will be enough to classify it as commercial sex with a minor under 18 which carries a jail term of up to 7 years, with fines and caning.

Commercial Sex Outside of Singapore

To eradicate the problem of sexual offences involving minors among Singaporeans, The Act 15 amendment of 2019 will now also include the same sexual offences being committed by Singaporeans in other countries, making them liable for punishment as if they had committed the offence in Singapore.

This includes visiting or procuring the services of underaged sex workers or participating in illegal sex tours in other countries, as well as establishing or maintaining an inappropriate sexual relationship with a minor even if they only communicate online and never actually meet.

The new act will also address online sexual communication, such as sending inappropriate messages or media to a minor under 18 living in a different country. The law will now treat it as if the minor too was in Singapore when the offence was committed and the offender may be jailed up to 7 years, with fines and caning.

These laws are applicable to all Singapore citizens and Permanent Residents.

Better Protection for Minors Under 16

The new Section 376E includes protection against sexual grooming of minors under the age of 16. In this new act, anyone above the age of 18 is liable for an offence if he/she either communicates, or even shows any intent towards an inappropriate relationship whether the minor is in Singapore or not.

The punishment for such offences can be extended to 3 years in jail, including a fine, if the victim is below 18, and up to 4 years in prison if the victim is below the age of 14.

Sexual Offences Involving Victims with Mental Disabilities

The new Act 15 of 2019 will now also protect victims with mental disabilities. This includes acts where the offender either touches the victim inappropriately, or makes the victim perform a sexual act on another person. 

The definition of mental disability according to the law is “an impairment of or a disturbance in the functioning of the mind or brain resulting from any disability or disorder of the mind or brain which impairs the ability to make a proper judgement in the giving of consent to sexual touching;”

What is different with this new act is that in a case where the victim has a mental disability, their consent to the sex act may not be valid whether or not, the victim is the offender’s spouse. If there is reason to believe that the offender knows that the victim has a mental disability and had issued threats or deception to exploit and induce the sex act, then the person will have committed an offence.

Anyone found guilty of this offence can be jailed up to 5 years, with a fine, or caning, and if the touching involved sexual penetration of any sort, the offender may be liable to up to 20 years in prison, with a fine, or caning.

Engaging a Lawyer

If you are currently in a situation that requires mediation or legal advice, it’s best to consult a lawyer who will be able to guide you through your options.

Mr Amarjit Singh Sidhu of Amarjit Sidhu Law Corporation has represented numerous clients in a wide variety of matters over the years from traffic offences, high-profile criminal cases – to family and divorce matters. With a vast knowledge of Singapore’s laws and a wealth of experience, Mr Amarjit Singh Sidhu will be able to provide valuable and timely advice for your situation. For more information, feel free to contact us for a consultation.

Source: https://sso.agc.gov.sg/Act/PC1871?ProvIds=P4XVI-P4_375-.#pr376B-

A Guide to Sexual Offences in Singapore [Part 2] – Protecting Minors

With the Act 15 of 2019 amendments to the law in response to sexual offence cases in Singapore, there will now be stronger safeguards in place to protect minors below the age of 16, as well as those who are 16 to 18 from sexual grooming or exploitation from online predators, as well as family members.

In a previous article, we explained what consent is in the context of the law and in Part 1, we provided examples of what would be considered sexual offences. In this article, we’ll highlight the various laws protecting minors and what you should know if you have children.

Sexual Grooming of Minors

According to the new Section 376E of the Penal Code, any person aged 18 and above will now be liable for an offence if they initiate or agree to at least one meeting to anyone below the age of 18 that leads to a sexual offence either during or after their meeting. It also does not matter if any prior meeting between them took place in or outside of Singapore.

If the victim is below the age of 14, the punishment for this offence is imprisonment that may extend up to 4 years and/or a fine. For any other case, the punishment may extend up to 3 years imprisonment.

What this means simply is that if you have a child below the age of 18, anyone they meet who is above the age of 18 will be subject to this law. This also includes sexual communication.

What is Sexual Communication?

Even if the person never meets the victim, the new Section 376EB now states it is an offence to send any form of sexual communication to the victim. This includes inappropriate text messages, photos and videos of a sexual nature. It does not matter where it was sent from, or if the victim replies or not. The mere act of sending such communication may lead to a 2 year jail sentence and/or a fine and if the victim is below 14, the jail term may be extended to 3 years.

This also means if you have a child who has access to the internet, it’s best to activate safeguards such as spam filters and monitoring who your child is talking to either online or via their messaging apps.

There are resources available online that guide you on how to activate child protection features on commonly used apps like Whatsapp and Facebook.

Clearer Definition for Commercial Sex Cases

The new amendments on Section 376B now include the definition of what ‘sexual services’ mean in commercial sex involving minors. In a previous article, we highlighted the problem of human trafficking in Singapore and there have been cases in the past where commercial sex workers turned out to be minors.

The new amendment now clearly defines what constitutes sexual offences. The punishment for those found guilty of an offence is up to 7 years in prison and/or a fine, and for anyone who expresses any interest in the form of communication to commit such an offence, may be liable for imprisonment up to 2 years and/or a fine. 

If you are currently in a situation where you may have encountered a sexual offence, or witnessed one – or if you are being accused of one, it’s best to contact a lawyer to better understand what the situation is, and what’s the best course of action to take.

Engaging a Lawyer

Mr Amarjit Singh Sidhu of Amarjit Sidhu Law Corporation has represented numerous clients in a wide variety of matters over the years from traffic offences, high-profile criminal cases – to family and divorce matters. With a vast knowledge of Singapore’s laws and a wealth of experience, Mr Amarjit Singh Sidhu will be able to provide valuable and timely advice for your situation. For more information, feel free to contact us for a consultation.

Source: https://sso.agc.gov.sg/Act/PC1871?ProvIds=P4XVI-P4_375-.#pr376B-

A Guide to Sexual Offences in Singapore [Part 1] – Consent

With a proliferation in cases of sexual offences in Singapore, including a four-fold increase in cases of child sex abuse since 2010, there have also been sexual offence cases between family members, as well as within schools and workplaces, and cases involving voyeurism, affecting all genders.

In response, Singapore’s Courts announced the Act 15 of 2019, which took effect in the beginning of 2020, with new laws to better protect women, including consent for marital sex, as well as laws to protect minors from sexual grooming, including those between the ages of 16 and 18. 

Although these recent amendments may seem like the reason there have been more such cases in court these days, the new laws also mean there is a need for clearer definitions and education on what exactly is a sexual offence. 

If you are currently seeking legal advice regarding a possible sexual offence case, you should speak to a lawyer.

The Main Difference is Consent

Most sexual offences are committed without the victim’s consent. In a previous article, we explained the meaning of sexual consent in the context of the law and their respective conditions. However just as with most cases involving intimacy, there will be certain grey areas, usually shaped by moral codes within society. 

A common issue in marital rape cases is that there is an expectation by the husband that sex is an entitlement in the marriage but according to Section 375(4),(5) of the Penal Code, the husband may have committed a sexual offence against his wife if she did not provide consent.

However, if the victim of a sexual offence is below the age of 14, then consent is inconsequential.

What are Sexual Offences?

Is a gentle slap on your friend’s buttocks harmless? Should you give your attractive colleague a nickname based on an adult actor you know? Is it okay to watch someone else changing their clothes from your own window? Is it okay to secretly film and watch videos of your colleagues even if you don’t mean to share them? The short answer to these questions is no. In fact, they might get you into trouble.

Sexual offences can be looked at as a broad spectrum of actions that involve the exploitation of someone else’s modesty or dignity. This can include acts such as making sexual innuendo jokes about a person or their physical appearance, which may seem harmless and funny for some, but may be extremely hurtful and offensive for others, to much more serious offences such as sexual assault and rape. 

Sexual Assault and Rape

According to Section 375 of the Penal Code, any man who penetrates another person’s vagina, mouth or anus with his penis, either without her consent, or if she’s below 14, will have committed rape and will be liable for up to 20 years imprisonment including caning or a fine.

If the offender physically hurts or even issues verbal threats before or while committing the offence, the person will be liable to a minimum of 8 years imprisonment and at least 12 strokes of the cane. 

For sexual assault cases involving penetration, Section 376 of the Penal Code will apply when the offender causes another person to commit the sexual offence either on themselves or on someone else without the victim’s consent, or if the victim is below 14. 

If found guilty, the offender will be liable for up to 20 years imprisonment including caning or a fine and similarly, if there was physical hurt or verbal threats included with the offence, then the offender is liable to a minimum of 8 years up to 20 in prison, and at least 12 strokes of the cane.

In Part 2, we will explain how the new changes in the law will better protect minors from sexual grooming and exploitative relationships.

Engaging a Lawyer

If you are currently in a situation that requires mediation or legal advice, it’s best to consult a lawyer who will be able to guide you through your options.

Mr Amarjit Singh Sidhu of Amarjit Sidhu Law Corporation has represented numerous clients in a wide variety of matters over the years from traffic offences, high-profile criminal cases – to family and divorce matters. With a vast knowledge of Singapore’s laws and a wealth of experience, Mr Amarjit Singh Sidhu will be able to provide valuable and timely advice for your situation. For more information, feel free to contact us for a consultation.

Source: https://sso.agc.gov.sg/Act/PC1871?ProvIds=P4XVI-P4_375-.#P4XVI-P4_375-